Compiled by Wang Ming-ji.
The account of the bi-nzao given by Wang Ming-ji begins with the statement that they were "dla ndu", that is spirits found in the air, and that explains why they were sensitive to sounds borne on the air, whistling, sighing and leaf-blowing. The last refers to a practice of Miao children and young people on the hills looking after the cattle and sheep, sometimes to amuse themselves by holding certain kinds of leaves between their thumbs and blowing across them making them vibrate like a reed. The shrill sound produced carried a long way, and by varying the pitch and rhythms, messages could be conveyed over quite considerable distances.
It is a pity that Wang Ming-ji did not enlarge on the procedures necessary actually to cure bi-nzao possession.
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